Scutellonema brachyurum (Steiner, 1938) Andrassy,
Rotylenchus brachyurus Steiner, 1938
Rotylenchus coheni Goodey, 1952
Scutellonema coheni (Goodey, 1952)
Scutellonema boocki Lordello, 1957
Nomenclature Note: In some recent literature,
the name Scutellonema brachyurus has been applied to this nematode.
According to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN, Art.
31.2), the genus name and species name must be in gender agreement. Since
the name ending of Scutellonema is gender neuter (ICNZ, Art. 30.1.2),
the correct name for the species is brachyurum as used by Andrassy
Length, female: 0.82 mm av.; length, male: 0.63-0.85
Body forming a single spiral
(occasionally arcuate); annulations distinct, average annule
width 1.4 Âµm near midbody.
fields about one fourth as wide as body,
areolated from the
anterior to the excretory pore and at phasmids,
marked by 4 incisures.
Lip region hemispherical, slightly set off by a
constriction, with 3 to 4 (sometimes 5) annules of irregular width and
a terminal flat labial disc; basal annule marked by 6 longitudinal striae;
framework strongly sclerotized, its outer margins inwardly concave,
extending posteriorly one body annule.
Stylet well developed, 26-30 Âµm long, in two almost
equal parts; basal knobs prominent, rounded with slightly flattened
anterior surfaces, 4.5 Âµm across.
Dorsal esophageal gland opening rather obscure, about
5 Âµm behind spear knobs.
Esophagus typical of the genus, slightly contracted at
bulb ovoid, extending over 8 body annules.
Nerve ring encircling isthmus a little behind median
bulb, well anterior to excretory pore
which lies at approximately 88 body annules behind the lip region and
about one body-width behind the esophageal glands.
Esophageal glands overlap intestine dorsally.
symmetrical, on left side of intestine. Ovaries outstretched with
oocytes in a row except for 4 or 5 in multiplication zone near
tip. Single egg in posterior uterus. No spermatheca
or sperms in uterus. Epiptygma
double, indistinct, not projecting out through vulva.
Intestine extending slightly over rectum.
Tail broadly rounded, about half anal body-width long,
annulations following tail contour; annules slightly irregular and
coarser than adjacent body annules; 8 annules between anus and tail
Phasmids enlarged, 3-4 Âµm
in diameter, just pre-anal. Term "scutellum" refers to Latin
"shield" for shape and size of phasmids
- hence Scutellonema.
Male: Rare, absent from most populations.
Similar to female in most details.
arcuate, slightly cephalated, 25-27 Âµm long.
Bursa crenate, terminal.
[Ref: CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes,
Set 4, No. 54 (1974)]
Reported median body size for this species (Length mm; width micrometers; weight micrograms) - Click:
Cosmopolitan; may be native to Africa where it is common in uncultivated
Occurs on 85 plant species in California (Siddiqui et al.).
Ectoparasite of roots, but may invade the deeper cortical layers and
In african violets, the nematode was found both within and between
cells; several eggs were seen within a single cell, where the juveniles
may hatch and develop to fill the cell completely before migrating through the
wall to the adjacent cells (Golden, 1956).
Soybean, tobacco, sweet potato, alfalfa, barley, rice, tea, sugarcane, and
On suitable hosts, S. brachyurum quickly builds up to large
Different initial populations when inoculated on red clover reached a very
high ceiling level after 325 days, and there was no apparent injury to the
On hairy vetch, greatest population increases occured at 28 C, while at 18
C, reproduction was considerably retarded (Malek & Jenkins,
In the greenhouse, in 7 months, S. brachyurum increased 3.8-fold on
tulip tree and 17-fold on sycamore (Ruehle, 1971).
Goodey (1952) observed that parasitized roots of Hippeastrum sp.
showed reddish lesions which later turned brown. The internal root
cavities produced by the nematodes became isolated by a new tissue - the wound
Graham (1955) demonstrated that S. brachyurum is pathogenic to, and
produces lesions on the roots of, tobacco grown under greenhouse and field
conditions. Affected plants of Golden Cure Tobacco showed reduced root
weight, top weight, and reduced height compared to non-inoculated
Luc (1959) found this nematode associated with poor growth of sugarcane in
There is no record of associations of this species with other pathogens.
Grass rotations between tobacco crops in Zimbabwe can be effective (Shepherd,
Fumigation with DBCP
eliminated Scutellonema populations in cotton
grown in Tanzania.
Heat treatment and use of nematicides
on amaryllis bulbs grown in the greenhouse have been employed (Johansson &
Host Plant Resistance, Non-hosts
Andrássy, I. 1958. Hoplolaimus tylenchiformis Daday, 1905
(syn. H. coronatus Cobb, 1923) und die Gattungen der Unterfamilie
Hoplolaiminae Filipjev, 1936. Nematologica 3:44-56.
CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes, Set 4, No. 54 (1974)