(de Man, 1876) Filip'ev, 1936
Tylenchus robustus de Man, 1987
Hoplolaimus uniformis Thorne,
Rotylenchus uniformis (Thorne, 1949) Loof & Oostenbrink, 1958
Anguillulina robusta Goodey, 1932
Rotylenchus goodeyi Loof & Oostenbrink, 1958
Rotylenchus fallorobustus Sher,
Length of female = 1.2-1.8 mm.
Upon relaxation, female body usually forms a single
spiral, sometimes C-shaped.
areolated on mid-body, with 4 incisures.
(Photomicrograph, I.A. Zasada).
Lip region hemispherical, offset by a constriction,
with 6-7 distinct annules and a terminal disc; lip annules
longitudinally indented to give a tiled surface
Anterior and posterior cephalids
Spear well developed, usually about 46 Âµm long;
anterior tapering portion 50-56% of its total length; basal knobs
large, rounded, but sometimes with flat or indented anterior
Median esophageal bulb ovate, very muscular and with a
prominent valve in center.
glands extending over intestine dorsally and dorso-laterally as
the two subventrals are shifted from their normal to subdorsal
position. Nuclei of subventral glands varying in position from
slightly posterior to slightly anterior of dorsal gland.
usually close to esphago-intestinal valve, just behind the hemizonid
which is distinct and 3 annules long.
Vulva a depressed, transverse slit, epiptygma
short, double but sometimes appearing single in lateral
Two branches of gonad outstretched in opposite
rounded, usually packed with sperms.
Ovaries with a single row of oocytes except for a few
in germinal zone.
Intestine partially overlapping rectum.
Tail hemispherical, regularly annulated, with 8-17
annules from anus to center of terminus.
distinct, pore-like, usually just preanal but varying from 3 annules
posterior to 7 annules anterior to anal level.
Body length 1.0-1.3 mm.
Body in open C shape when relaxed.
Lip region more distinctly offset and elevated than in
Bursa crenate, enveloping tail.
slightly cephalated and ventrally arcuate, with well developed ventral
flanges on distal third.
protrusible, with prominent titillae distally. Capitulum (=telamon)
9-12 Âµm long.
[Ref: CIH Descriptions, Set 1, No. 11 (1972)]
Reported median body size for this species (Length mm; width micrometers; weight micrograms) - Click:
Europe and the U.S. Occurs in soils around Davis and at Half Moon
In Britain, is reported from R. robustus a wide range of soil types
but preferred more moist, alkaline soils and had a broader ecological amplitude
than other species (Boag and Neilson, 1996).
Photomicrograph by U. Zunke
Trees, meadows, grasses, and vegetables.
Bog myrtle, oak and hawthorn in Britain (Boag and Neilson, 1996).
The nematode prefers sandy soils; survives in fallow
soil for up to 6 months, with mortality usually not exceeding 50%.
A temperature of 13C is unfavorable for survival, but temperatures of
18.5 C and 24 C are equally favorable for development. The first molt
occurs within the eggs, and the second-stage juvenile hatches after 14 to 16
days. The second generation appears only after about 100 days, at about 23
C; half of this time is taken up by the fourth larval stage.
Male and female juveniles are recognizable after the third molt by light
areas in the region of the developing gonad and also by their body lengths.
[Ref: CIH Descriptions Set 1, No. 11 (1972)]
In the Netherlands, nematode stunts peas and causes root-rot; also causes damage
which affects shape and size of carrots.
In California, nematode causes stunting and yield reduction in lettuce (Lear
et al., 1969).
In the presence of Fusarium oxysporum, nematode feeding can cause
extensive decay of the root cortex of peas, which consequently show "early
yellowing". Symptoms are 3.5 times more severe with nematode/fungus
association than with fungus or nematode alone (Labruyere et al., 1959).
In Australia: chlorotic patches in seedlings of Pinus radiata associated
with high population levels of R. robustus (Winoto-Suatmadji and Marks,
(1,3-D) and ethylene dibromide (EDB) preplant treatment reduced damage in
lettuce (Lear et al., 1969).
Rotation to potatoes recommended in the Netherlands to improve carrot yield.
Host Plant Resistance, Non-hosts
Boag, B.and R. Neilson. 1996. Distribution and ecology of
Rotylenchus and Pararotylenchus (Nematoda: Hoplolaimidae) in Great Britain. Nematologica
CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes, Set 1, No. 11 (1972)
Winoto-Suatmadji, R. and Marks, G.C. 1989. Rotylenchus robustus in a
Pinus radiata nursery in Victoria. Australasian Plant Pathology 18:38.